With some cheap parts, a free afternoon, and a bit of knowledge, I created an aircraft tracking station at home.
The first step in this project is gaining a basic understanding in how everything works and what we are trying to accomplish. ADS-B is an aircraft transponder protocol that allows ground based stations and in cockpit equipment to collect information about other planes nearby. ADS-B typically operates at 1090MHz and provides data on the aircrafts position, speed, type, and callsign. If you have ever used a flight tracking site such as FlightRadar24 (who will make a few more appearances later) you have benefitted from the wonders of ADS-B. 
Note: This is by no means a guide, of which they are plenty of online to choose from.
Here's what I used to get everything running:
-Raspberry Pi 3+
-RTL-SDR Dongle
-A homemade antenna (more on that later)
-FlightAware ADS-B Filter

Equipment Used

Part 1: Indoor Hardware
The first step I took was to procure the hardware needed and begin testing. Getting things up and running is fairly simple. Plug the SDR (software defined radio) dongle into the Raspberry Pi via USB and power things up. The OS on the Raspberry Pi is the FlightRadar24's "Pi24" client. Once started, Pi24 will ask for some basic info about the location of the tracking station and after assigning you an ID will begin tracking. Pi24 will begin outputting its data to the web based GUI, Dump1090. By navigating to the page given by Pi24 from a browser on your network, you will be able to see a map with any planes you are tracking displayed. 

The Dump1090 Map Screen Produced by the Raspberry Pi

Part 2: Outdoor Hardware
Of course, the little antenna I had inside my bedroom for testing was not very useful in tracking aircraft, especially considering that ADS-B for the most part requires a direct line of sight. After some research (and quickly deciding that a commercially available option would be much too expensive) I chose to construct my own antenna. Following a helpful guide from balarad.net, I began turning some old coaxial cable and a piece of PVC pipe into fairly effective ADS-B antenna. By mounting on high up point, my range was greatly increased and I began tracking a fair number of planes for my area.

The Custom Antenna Mounted on The Roofline

Part 3: Benefits
In addition to being a fun project, collecting ADS-B data has its benefits. By sharing the data with FlightRadar24 to increase their coverage area (which happens automatically when using Pi24) you can get a free FlightRadar24 Business level subscription, which unlocks many of the features of FlightRadar24.

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